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Latvia (IPA : /ˈlætviːə/) (historically Lattonia, Lettonia, or Lettland), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian : Latvija or Latvijas Republika, Livonian : Lețmō), is a country in Northern Europe . Latvia shares land borders with Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south — and both Russia and Belarus to the east. It is separated from Sweden in the west by the Baltic Sea . The capital of Latvia is Riga (Latvian : Rīga). Latvia has been a member state of the European Union since May 1 , 2004 .